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Battle of Culloden

Before discussing the battle, I must first deal with a set of common assumptions.

Assumption 1 – The 1745 Jacobite rising was entirely a conflict between  highlanders and lowlanders.
Incorrect. There were highlanders and lowlanders on both sides (along with Irish, English and Welsh) and French on the Jacobite side.

Assumption 2 – Religion was a causal factor.
Incorrect. Religion was not crucial in Scottish Jacobitism. Yet it proved to be the defining element in Irish Jacobitism.

Assumption 3
– The highlanders were a bunch of bare-arsed savages.
Incorrect. The highland army contained doctors, lawyers, poets and philosophers. It contained men who had attended the most famous universities of Europe. Mind you, it also contained shepherds and cowherds, bakers and brewers (and cattle thieves).

Assumption 4 – Charles Edward Stuart wished to reclaim the throne of Scotland.
Incorrect. He didn't give a damn about Scotland – he wanted the throne of Scotland, but primarily he wanted the English throne.

Assumption 5
– There were more Scots on the Hanoverian side at Culloden.
Incorrect. Three of the 19 government regiments present were of  Scottish origin, those were 2/1 (Royal) Regiment – lately the Royals Scots, 21st North British Fusilers – Royal Scots Fusiliers (until recently) and 25th Sempill's Foot (King's Own Scottish Borderers in more modern parlance). There was also a formation of about 300 Campbells. All told, that means around 1,500 to 1,600 Scots , both highland and lowland on the Hanoverian side....

Having (hopefully) caused an apoplexy or two, we (that's the Royal we, by the way) shall proceed with a few introductory remarks:-

The Battle of Culloden must placed in the proper context – this not a purely Scottish context, nor is it English or even British (remember, Britain is a “new” country at this time). The Rising of 1745 was in actuality part of the larger War of the Austrian Succession.

For the sake of brevity, I won't go any further back than 1688 and the “Glorious Revolution” which was in fact nothing of the bloody sort. It was a coup de 'tat carried out by bunch of power-crazy aristocrats from the south of England. This decision by those aristocrats to replace the catholic James VII and II with William and Mary, of the house of Orange created problems which still exist today in Ireland (and to a lesser extent in Scotland). However with the installation of the monarch known to the English as William III, we find ourselves in a real quandary, what is his regnal number (not that it matters). In the English system he is William III (after William the Bastard and William Rufus), in the Scottish line, he is William II (after William the Lion), in Ireland, on the other hand, he is William I (after nobody at all). Anyway, that's 1688 out of the way...........

On to 1689, in Scotland there is unrest which culminates in the Battle of Killiecrankie where the Government forces are decisively routed by the Royalist (they aren't Jacobites yet) forces under James Graham of Claverhouse (Bonnie Dundee) who, unfortunately dies from wounds received in proving himself to his men. Losing Dundee, takes the heart out of the army and most of them bugger off home – there are a few skirmishes here and there but nothing of much import.....

We have reached 1690, a momentous year in Irish history, mainly because of a battle (the Battle of the Boyne) which involved around 60,000 troops, but is mainly remembered as a sectarian battle for some reason which totally escapes me. Especially the current Pope (whoever he was) and Billy the whatever were on the same bloody side...

We then have a period of relative peace, which unfortunately includes the massacre of Glencoe and the failure of the Darien scheme, during which William the Whatever dies and is succeeded by Queen Mary, who dies and is succeeded by Queen Anne who presides over the passing of the Act of Union, then snuffs it in 1714 and is succeeded by George I, who is known to Jacobites as “ The Wee, Wee German Lairdie”. This period included the “Invasion “ of 1708 in which James VIII (the Old Pretender) and 6000 French troops were to be landed on the shores of the Firth of Forth. The Royal Navy prevented this, so they went home.

Scottish opposition to both the Act of Union and the imposition of a foreign king resulted in the Rising of 1715 (there were also Jacobite Risings  in Cornwall, Wales and Northern England but no-one is supposed to mention that).  Anyways, on 6th of September the Earl of Mar (Bobbing John, in Jacobite mythology), in the presence of a number of clan chiefs, proclaimed James VIII as their “lawful sovereign”. He then managed to raise an army of about 8,000 men. This Rising ended with the inconclusive Battle of Sherrifmuir. The aftermath of this battle included the first of the many genocidal Acts passed by the British government which were intended to eradicate the “Highland menace”. Naturally they didn't W***....

In 1719 there was an attempt by Spain, at the behest of Cardinal Guilo Alberoni, to raise the clans. This was accompanied by the dispatch of some 5.000 troops to invade England. Two frigates landed a force of 300 or so Spanish marines on the shores of Loch Duich, they seized and held Eilan Donan castle for a period, but after the Battle of Glen Sheil (known as the Affair in Glen Sheil to those Scots who have actually heard of it), they were forced to surrender to Hanoverian forces.

With me so far?

That was a brief description of the background to Culloden.

Our story proper begins on 2nd August 1745 when Prince Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Silvester Severino Maria Stuart (herein after known as Bonnie Prince Charlie / BPC or Kid Shortbread) lands on Eriskay with his allies – all seven of them. He betakes himself to the mainland where he meets with the local chiefs, when he is told by Locheil to “Go home” himself replies “I am home”. He must have been a charismatic little bugger because, despite their misgivings, the chiefs agree to meet at Glenfinnan.............

Later....It's 19th August and we're in Glenfinnan for the raising of the Standard, but even before this on the 16th, the first engagement of the war has taken place. At a location on Wades Road above the River Spean known as High Bridge, MacDonald of Tiendrish, with a dozen men and a piper, captured two companies of the Royal Regiment (about 70 men and 10 officers) with the loss of two dead (both on the government side). BPC and his supporters, yes, all 7 of them, along with some of the local chiefs and their “tails” (retainers) are hanging about twiddling their thumbs. Suddenly they hear a sound which scares the bejesuz out of the same BPC.  After he recovers, it is explained to him (gently) that no one was actually torturing  a cat, and what he heard was music, he considers heading back to Daddy (in Rome), for the protection of his only eardrums (if only he had...).

Anyway, the clansmen have started to arrive and the programme can continue. When we come to the Raising of the Standard, the Duke of Atholl, who is also Marquess of Tullibardine is so old and decrepit (from rheumatism and other associated diseases) that, while he can hold the staff of the Standard, he himself needs assistance from the audience. Such assistance is forthcoming, the Standard is raised and James VIII and III is proclaimed lawful king. A period of consolidation and and resource gathering takes place in which a notable event is the appointment of an ancestor of mine (who is also a notable poet) to tutor Kid Shortbread in the Gaelic (in addition to his duties as an officer in the Clanranald regiment).

The Jacobite army now heads south via Perth where it stops for a week while BPC gathers in more money and supplies – he stayed at an where the Salutation Hotel now is (the room in which he slept is now a small meeting room). The Jacobite army reaches the Scottish Capital and parks itself at Duddingston – at the time a small town outside Edinburgh – at the same time General Sir John Cope, Commander-in-chief in Scotland (or some such title) has got his act together and gathered an army at Dunbar, he has four regiments of foot and two of dragoons.

On the 20th September, in the vicinity of Prestonpans, the Hanoverian and Jacobite armies can see each other marching and counter-marching in full view. Night falls and the Jacobites cheat (well they must be cheating, after all they're not English, are they?) and make a night march, with the assistance of some locals, around and through the bogs which separate the armies. Come the daylight, the Jacobites are behind the Hanoverians. Being civilised, the Jacobites allow the Hanoverians to reform with the foot in the centre and dragoons on both flanks (I won't mention the artillery, except to say that Cope had six guns, while the Jacobites had none). The Jacobites launch an assault and the Hanoverian gunners think better of it and leave PDQ.  The dragoons (apart from Colonel Gardiner and a few others join them).

Ten minutes later it's all over and Sir John Cope is following an ancient English tradition dating back to 1297. (Running off to Berwick after getting his army trashed). The Hanoverian casualties are said to have been: around 300 killed, 400 to 500 wounded and 1,400 to 1,500 captured. Only 170 of the foot got away. Whilst the Jacobites probably lost less than 30 killed and 70 wounded

The original Edinburgh Festival? After knocking seven bells out of Copes' army,  Bonnie Prince Charlie proceeds to waste five weeks partying at his base in the Palace of Holyrood House. At this time most of his advisers are telling him to consolidate his hold on Scotland. Did he take their advice? Did he Hell.

More later when I get the time.


More! more!  I knew very little of it Scottish history is not taught here Sad

In 1745, after much debate, two young men and the wife of the elder left their oldest brother and other family on the Island of Mull to make the journey to join the Shortbried Kid. The rest of the family decided to sit tight and see what happened. this was a common occurrence among many highland families. Taken in the hope that the winning side wouldn't come down too hard on them. They were wrong and whole families were proscribed anyway.

After many adventures and not a few dunts the three fetched up hobbling away from Culloden in April 1746. the younger brother was suffering from a head injury that would later kill him, mostly due to the rigours of living off the land and tooling round the hills avoiding the redcoats. He went blind, got a headache and died during the following winter.

The remaining pair, after living in the hills for nearly seven years, settled near Inverness on a smallholding and, when John Wesley visited Inverness in 1764 they became Methodists, along with many others who did the same. An event which so confused the English that they stopped persecuting people while they tried to figure out where the Catholics and Jews* had all gone.

The surviving pair were Hugo and Isabella MacLean, my umpty times great grandparents. The above is a precis of their journals.

*Up until this time Inverness was an important northern sea port and had a strong financial centre, which included a large contingent of Jews who were persecuted along with everyone else. Legend has it that the most common language spoken in the town at that time was...


notascot wrote:

More! more!  I knew very little of it Scottish history is not taught here Sad

It's not exactly taught much in Scottish schools either.   Mad   Admittedly the Shortbreid Kid (I quite like this new name) got more of a mention than other aspects.

You asked for it................

Cul-lodair, an da pairt:-

Kid Shortbreid has gotten his way and the Jacobites are going to visit England. The Jacobite army at this time numbers somewhere around 6,000, partially due to  Baroness Nairne wrote:-

“Twa thoosan swam owre tae fell English ground
and danced themsel's dry tae the pibroch sound”

Nice, powerful imagery, but totally inaccurate, because :-

A) there were around 4,500 to 5,000 in the Jacobite army,
B) it's damn near impossible to dance to a pibroch and
C) it didn't bloody happen.

The Jacobite army sets out from Edinburgh at the end of October, leaving behind a distraught female populace – Kid Shortbried being the 18th century equivalent of Michael Jackson (or maybe Eminem) – they are basically just out for a leisurely walk in the countryside. It's tempting to think that they got lost, but by the 10th of November they fall over Carlisle. The Hanoverians have been “fortifying” Carlisle castle. The following citation is from the journal of Lt-Colonel Durand of the 1st Footguards (who was personally and in total the full amount of reinforcement made available to the garrison of the castle):-

“....which I found in a very weak and defenceless condition; having no ditch, no out-works of any kind, no cover'd way, - the walls very thin in most places, and without proper flanks; but agreed with Captain Gilpin...not to mention our opinion of the weakness of the place for fear of discouraging the Militia.....”

This pythonesque (Monty of that Ilk) half-arsed nonsense (a reinforcement of one person?) does absolutely nothing for the reputation of what is now the “British” army – even though I will still use the term Hanoverian – as the castle was forced to surrender on the 15th.  Durand was later court-martialled for surrendering his command – which might have been justified had he been given the resources he needed.

At the same time on the eastern side of the country, Wade is gathering his troops at Newcastle, not entirely to his satisfaction. On the 16th, he orders his army to march out but the regiment ordered to take the van (take point in modern parlance), a Swiss formation (Hirzler) in Hanoverian service refuses to leave it's barracks until 10 o'clock, when it does it meets problems – the roads are a jumble of frost-hardened ruts and the fields are under feet of snow. Consequently they manage to reach Ovingham before being forced to bivouac for the night........

A day later they have reached Hexham after a helluve trauchle, but while here word reaches them that Carlisle has fallen, apart from that, his forces are in very bad way, here's a quotation from one of his officers:- “miserable roads, terrible frost and snow. We did not get to our grounds till near 8 and as my quarters were five miles off I did not get there till 11, almost starved to death with cold and hunger, but revived by a pipe and a little good wine. Next morning we found some of the poor fellows frozen to death for they could get to nothing to eat after marching 13 hours. The next day we marched to this place [Hexham]. Roads and weather the same. Got to camp about eight. Nothing for the men...”

Wades' officers hold a council of war on 19th November, heated words are exchanged (OK, possibly), but a unamimous decision is made to retire to Newcastle. This, in effect, as Ligonier (another Hanoverian general) and his forces are no further north than Lichfield, means that England is wide open. The Jacobites, however have troubles of their own. At a council of war held on the 18th (thus predating the Hanoverian one) BPC orders that they accept his strategy of “Going straight to London” none of his advisers agree with this scenario but himself talks them into it, claiming that French and English support will be forthcoming. Believing this for some idiot reason, the chiefs agree to his ”strategy”.

So on we go heading south. On the 21st  of November Carlisle is left behind (with a garrison of 300), Lord George Murray marched on the 20th  with the Atholl Brigade and the regiments of Glenbucket, the Duke of Perth and John Roy Stewart. {side note: ignore all the various spellings of Stuart. However any particular individual spells the name, whether Stewart (interchangeable with Stuart), Steuiart (very precocious, but who cares, I'm not one of them), Stuart (interchangeable with Stewart, but   more acceptable to the French – because no “W”) or Stuibhart (the Gaelic version)}.

Anyways, the Jacobite army is heading Londonwards at a fair rate of knots considering the weather, they stop at Kendall for a while (22nd to 25th) to catch their breath, four days later (29th November) Manchester is captured by a sargeant (John Dickson of Perths regiment), a drummer and the sargeants girl-friend.

A regiment is raised from the local Jacobites. This regiment is known (surprise) as the Manchester Regiment. A local who has served in the French army, a Francis Townely, is commissioned to be colonel in this regiment, which has a muster roll of approximately 200.

Continuing south, the Jacobites enter Derby on 4th December. The Hanoverian army is running around like a headless chicken. Troops are ordered to Chester, to North Wales (deemed to be a Jacobite objective), and to Lichfield. Lord Kilmarnock's Horse are sent out on a reconnissance, during which they encounter some Hanoverian dragoons at the Red Lion in Talke. Once again, the dragoons bugger off sharpish, but: they leave behind the reason for their being there – they're the escort for an intelligence officer, a Captain Weir. When questioned Weir tells all and hands over a copy of a newspaper report.......

This report lists the Hanoverian troop movements and numbers The newspaper lists forces comprising almost 14,000, Weir estimates their numers as being closer to 10,500, nevertheless this news causes consternation among the Jacobite High Command. The Prince is told “The gemmes a bogey”.

Lord George Murray telling him “Suppose even the Army march'd on and beat the Duke of Cumberland yett in the Battle they must Lose some men, and they had after that the King's own army consisting of near 7,000 men near London to deal with..........that certainly 4,500 Scots had never thought of putting a King upon the English Throne by themselves....”

Upon hearing this, Kid Shortbreid throws a wobbly and goes into a sulk mode....when he recovers he calls a general council at which he insults them all generally and severally to no avail. The 5th December is spent in resting up, but it allows Cumberland to steal a march on them.
Derby is left behind on 6th December and the withdrawal to Scotland commences. While the Jacobites covered something like 30 miles a day on the march south, but even in retreat, they are covering about 20 miles a day. On the 20th, BPC's birthday the army crosses back into Scotland. This is when the scene alluded to by Baroness Nairne occurs. The River Esk is in spate and in order to cross it the army has to from ranks of 10 or 12 and link arms before attempting to cross. Some how the manage this with the loss of only two camp-followers. Back in Scotland after fording the River Esk the army does indeed “dance itsel dry to the pibroch sound”, but this is on the way home.

Dumfries being on the route north, the army stops off in passing for a bit of light looting and extortion (mainly of shoes). Arriving in (and occupying) Glasgow on 25th the army tells the citizenry that they require 6000 pairs of shoes, along with “the like number of” tartan hose, bonnets, short coats, 12,000 linen shirts and £5,000.00 (and free lodging for the duration). On hearing this, the burgesses of Glasgow reply to this in the traditional Glasgow manner, which is (politely) rendered as “Bugger Off”. This is not to say that Glasgow is a hotbed of Hanoverianism – itsn't a hotbed of Jacobitism either. The burgessess and merchants of Glasgow are more interested in making money from the tobacco and slave trades than in making Kings.

Moving on to January 1746, after the excesses of the New Year festivities (this is Scotland, Christmas is not for enjoying, but Houghmagandie on the other hand......) a largish chunk of the army is investing (I could have said beseiging, but investing sounds better) Stirling Castle. This is a pointless exercise as Stirling Castle is one of the two most formidable fortifications in Scotland and they have no seige artilery of any kind. Thusly, over time, it dawns on the Jacobites that, in the matter of Stirling Castle, the result is Hanoverians 1, Jacobites 0.

This is brill Chooks, gie us mair.

Wonderful .... more!!!!!!

Yer gettin jist a wee bit..........

Later on in January, we are arriving in Falkirk in fine time to be having a disputation with General Henry “Hangman” Hawley – the latest Hanoverian commander to face the Jacobite challenge. On the 17th there is yet another Battle of Falkirk (this is getting to be familiar). Hawley launches three battalions of his dragoons at the Jacobite infantry and they assault the MacDonald regiments brigaded on the right of the Jacobite line. The cavalry break off sharpish after being in receipt of one volley from this regiment which has enough guns for another volley or two and a selection of long, sharp poiny things. The MacDonald regiments, having had some exercise, and being bored stiff with hanging about, take off after the dragoons. The dragoons, being mounted, get away. The infantry however are faced with a bunch of hairy heilanders waving three-foot long gullies. So the infantry advances to the rear quickly, but the MacDonalds have got in among them. The five regiments of foot on the Hanoverian left lose 20 officers. The battle however is pretty much a draw but Hawley leaves the field so the Jacobites have slightly better grounds to claim the victory.

It was pretty inconclusive and casualties on both sides are light, the Jacobites admitting to 50 dead and about 80 wounded. Hawley admits to a total of 67 dead and 280 missing (gone home?).

The Rout of Moy is yet another of those skirmishes at which the Jacobites are so proficient. On 16th February, Kid Shortbreid and his closest advisors are dining at Moy Hall with “Colonel Anne” (Lady Anne Mackintosh AKA Anne Farquharson). They are informed that Lord Loudon (Colonel John Campbell, Earl of Loudon) is headed their way with 1,200 men. Panic ensues. Running in circles etc. Eventually all present calm down. Loudon had sent an advance guard of 30 men to hold the gates of Moy Hall, but before getting there they encounter the local blacksmith and four of his friends – shots are exchanged and the advance guard go to ground. There is only one casualty (Hanoverian again), a piper named McCrimmon.

The main body of the troops, still around a mile away, hear the shots and the last five companies in the column turn tail and run. A  couple of hundred of them just keep on running. Loudon and the rest hang about where they are for an hour or so, then head back to Inverness. Loudon however, doesn't stop there – he keeps going until he reaches the Black Isle. Inverness castle (not the present one- that's a Victorian monstrosity) surrenders shortly afterward.

Thon fuggin thing's Victorian? Ah thocht it wis built by Walt Disney!

SengaMcp wrote:
Thon fuggin thing's Victorian? Ah thocht it wis built by Walt Disney!

Weel, he's victorian isse no?

Chookie wrote:
SengaMcp wrote:
Thon fuggin thing's Victorian? Ah thocht it wis built by Walt Disney!

Weel, he's victorian isse no?


Nurra bit:-

Nothing of much account happens over the next six to eight weeks. Jacobite numbers fluctuate even more than usual – the Jacobite army commanders never had all that much control over troop dispositions anyway and this problem has just got worse – after all what self-respecting farmer is going to ignore the planting season? There are also detachments of Jacobites all over the place.

The Hanoverians have different problems. The soldiers can walk (or ride if they are cavalry) but they have to get their supplies and equipment over extremely rough terrain which is not over-abundantly supplied with roads. However, the Hanoverians eventually reach Nairn, where they rest and recuperate.  

The day before the battle the Jacobite army (or what's left of it) makes a night march to Nairn in the hope of catching Cumberlands army in the act of getting pissed - it is after all, Cumberlands' birthday – unfortunately, for a variety of reasons they are unable to do so. Those at the front of the army get into ear-shot of the Hanoverians but the sentries are alert and there are very few Jacobites availabe for an attack, so they retire....

The battle of Culloden is fought over terrain which is totally unsuitable for the “highland charge”, the Jacobites are exhausted, hungry – many of them have not eaten for three days - and cold. They are also outnumbered and outgunned. The majority of the troops who took part in the night march are still on their way back (or dead from exposure or hunger) or completely exhaustednumbers of the Jacobite army (which has always been troubled by personnel wandering off home when they are bored, have collected enough loot or need to get the harvest in) is reinforced by the local Neds and some recent recruits, none of whom have been supplied with arms.

Through the intransigence, or possibly, idiocy of Kid Shortbreid, the Jacobite army is forced to face what is reputed to be the best army in Europe (don't mention Fontenoy). Neither the terrain or the weather are advantageous to the Jacobites, the Hanoverians have more materiel, more  (and better served) guns. Even more importantly, they are well fed, albeit a bit hungover, and much better equipped than the Jacobites. Culloden Moor is a on top of a rise which lies between the village of Culloden and the River Nairn. It's a bleak, windswept place.

After all the campaigning, battles, deaths and other general bad stuff associated with opposing armies, we are about to just find out exactly how bad bad stuff can be.......

The Jacobite army forms up in two lines, with the Athollmen on the right wing and a bunch of pissed-off MacDonald regiments on the left wing – they're pissed-off because they think they've been insulted. Anyways, from the right (southern) wing we have the Athollmen, Locheil and his Camerons, Ardsheil (Stewarts), Frasers, MacIntosh, Monaltrie, MacLeans and MacLachlans, Chisholms and the three MacDonald regiments. These probably number in the region of 3,900 men. The second line is much more sparse, it consists of a scatter of units intended to act as a tactical reserve. There are about 2,000 in this line and there are maybe a couple of hundred cavalry. In addition they have a number of 3-pounder guns, but they have limited powder and shot.

The Hanoverians form up in three ranks, both the first and second rank containing six regiments of foot and the third three regiments of foot and two of dragoons. There is also a detached force of one regiment of foot and two of dragoons. A battalion of Campbell militia is also present. This gives the Hanoverians something in the region of 7,500 men (at a conservative estimate). There are also 10 guns (3-pounders), ample powder and shot and six Coehorn mortars.

The battle takes place in typical Scottish spring weather (rain, hail and biting winds). Hostilities are commenced by Kerr's 11th Dragoons and four troops of Cobham's 10th Dragoons who, along with four companies of Campbell militia are stationed to the south-west of Leanach. There is considerable disagreement about who fires the first shot in the main battle, but most are certain the rebels fire first. This can cause a bit of confusion as the Jacobites consider the Hanoverians to rebels (and vice versa). Just to be controversial (or not), let's say the Jacobites started it.

Most reports claim that the Jacobite artillery, such as it is, was largely ineffective yet most of the casualties on the Hanoverian right wing are the result of Jacobite artillery. The fact that these casualties are in regiments (Howard's 3rd and Fleming's 36th, in the second line and Battereau's 62nd in the third line)indicates that at least some Jacobites were passable gunners.

At around one o'clock the action begins. According to some reports the cannonade lasts 10-15 minutes, but others say it lasts around 30 minutes (which I would think unlikely, after would you just stand there for half an hour and let somebody use you for target practice?).

Eventually the Jacobite High Command gives the order to advance. The whole first line of the Jacobite army advances, but due to the way the opposing armies had formed up, the left wing had much further to go. Culloden Moor is totally unsuitable for the delivery of the Jacobites most fearsome weapon – the Highland Charge (basically, a downhill charge at speed in the course of which they would provoke the opposition into firing. When the opposition “presented” their firearms, the Highlanders ducked into the heather, waited for the volley, got up, charged forward, delivered their own volley, ditched the guns and went in with the sharp pointy things).

The terrain doesn't help the advance either. According to Captain James Johnstone of the Duke of Perth's Regiment who recorded that not only was the ground marshy, but “covered with water which reached halfway up the leg” due to the state of the ground, the MacDonalds can't advance with any speed, but advance they do. They get to something like 20 metres from the Hanoverian line and stall there. So they're standing shaking their fists and shouting curses at the Hanoverians (because they don't have any ammunition left). At this time they suffer their highest ranking casualty, Colonel Alexander MacDonnell of Keppoch who is killed while at the front of his regiment.

This marks the closest point the left wing gets to the Hanoverians. The front line regiments facing the MacDonalds suffer very few casualties as, by the time the Jacobites get near the Hanoverians their powder is wet, they are wet and not very about anything.however, when they retire, they retire as a unit. Indeed, when the fight was over, they marched off in good order with pipes playing and colours flying (or so I'm told). This may or may not be true, but it does make sense as cavalry prefer to attack single fugitives.

Most of the Hanoverian casualties are incurred by the left wing, largely because the Jacobite regiments in the centre are forced to move to the right as they advance, due both to the terrain and the fire of the regiments of Campbell and Price. This means that the Jacobite assault falls mainly on the extreme left of the Hanoverian army, Monro's and Barrell's who suffer the highest casualty count of the Battle – which isn't much. The Hanoverians suffer 50 dead and something under 300 wounded against some 700 to 1,500 dead and unnumbered wounded (many of whom will die either due the severity of the wounds or the actions of the Hanoverian army).

While the Jacobite left is halted in front of the Hanoverian line, the right has broken the first line on the Hanoverian left, but it's caught the crossfire from the rest of the Hanoverian front line and Ballimore's Argyll Militia. Even so, the Jacobites have broken through the first line of the Hanoverian forces. The second line has broken the back of the advance and they are falling back. Lord George Murray is desperatley trying to stabilise the situation. Later he writes:-“our men broke in upon some regiments on the enemy's left; but others came quickly up to their relief. Upon a fire from these last, and some cannon charged with cartouch shot, that they had, I think, at their second line, (for we had passed two that were on their front) my horse plunged and reared so much, that I thought he was wounded; so quitted my stirrups, and was thrown.”

With the retreat of the Jacobite right wing. The battle is, basically, over. The retreat of the right wing causes an extremely quick collapse of the resolve of the High Command. Colonel John Sullivan tells the commander of BPC's escort “yu see all is going to pot. Yu can be of no great succor, so before a general deroute wch will soon be, Sieze upon the Prince & take him off.” (I quite like this freestyle spelling. The spell-checker isn't happy though...)

So, apart from the MacDonalds and the French formations, this time it's the Jacobites doing the headless chicken routine. This is when the “British” army “stains it's honour” - or is it? The various war crimes (Yes, I know. “War Crime” is a modern invention.) are ordered by the Hanoverian Generals. Major-General Humphrey Bland of the 3rd Dragoons reports that he “gave Quarter to None but about Fifty French Officers and Soldiers He picked up in his Pusuit...”. James Wolfe, (Yes, that Wolfe), when speaking to another officer, comes out with this bullshit “The rebels, besides their natural inclinations, had orders not to give quarter to our men. We had an opportunity of avenging ourselves for that and many other things, and indeed we did not neglect it, as few Highlanders were made prisoners as possible.”

There is a story in which Wolfe refuses to “execute” a wounded highlander (Cameron of Inverallochy), however it doesn't quite accord with his expressed sentiment).

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